essay about authorbibliographyartist's influences
14. April 1921 - 18. December 1987
Ex Yugoslavia

Dimitrije Bašičević was born on April 14, 1921 in Šid, to a family of farmers. He attended elementary school in his village, and high school in Sremska Mitrovica, Sremski Karlovci and Vukovar. He studied history of art and philosophy in Vienna and in Zagreb where he graduated in 1949. Untill 1960 he was assistant and curator of the Modern Gallery and Art Archives at the Yugoslav Academy of Arts and Sciences. Beginning in 1952 he was also involved with the Gallery of Peasants' Art (later Gallery of Primitive Art) where he later became curator. He organized numerous exhibitions in the country and abroad, and published essays and art reviews. He made significant contributions in the  promotion of abstract art. In addition to his writing, he helped to organize the Salon 54 in Rijeka, the first exhibition of abstract art to be held in a public institution in Yugoslavia. In 1956 he curated Milan Sfeiner's retrospective. He received his Ph. D. from the Zagreb Faculty of Philosophy in 1957, with a thesis on Sava Sumanovic. He is a contributor to the Art Encyclopedia and the author of books on Mirko Virius (1950), Sava Sumanovic (1960) and Ivan Generalic (l 962). When the Gallery of Primitive Art was founded in 1960, he was its first curator. In 1964 he resigned because of the »Bosilj case« (Ilija Bosilj, a well-known naive painter, is Bašičević's father).
Mangelos became curator of the Benko Horvat collection and from 1971 he was head of the newly founded Centre for Film, Photography and Television. He took part in the organization of New Tendencies, and was on the editorial staff of both Bit and Spot magazines. He published essays on photography and organized several important exhibitions. His last texts dealt with the newest generation of artists of the time. Many of his writings have remained unpublished. He retired in 1982.
Bašičević began writing while still in high school. He wrote poetry and short prose texts, some of which were published after the war under a pseudonym. During the war he produced his first artworks: paysages de la mort and paysages de la guerre. In the 50s he created several series of works (tabula rasa, alphabet, paysages, nostories, graphs, negation de la peinture, pythagoras) which he was later to repeat obsessively. These works/texts in various languages and alphabets resemble neat calligraphy on writing tablets, although different materials are used: wooden boards, paper, exercise books, books, globes. Bašičević assumed the name of Mangelos which he used for his »private experiment, called Noart«.
His poems were published in the graphic cyclical work Eulalia illustrated by Matija Skurjeni (1959). At the same time he created the cyclical work, Guernica, illustrated by Ivan Generalić, which was not published.
Between 1959 and 1966 he was active in Gorgona, an informal artistic group named after one of his poems. His project for the Gorgona anti-magazine was not realized. He published several no-stories in Picelj's magazine in 1964. In the 60s he produced a considerable number of works. From 1968 he took part in visual poetry exhibitions. In the late 60s he created a series on Picasso which was exhibited at his first one-man show in Novi Sad in 1972. At the Gorgona retrospective in 1977 he exhibited his early work for the first time and this marked the beginning of his exposure to the public. One-man thematic shows followed: Manifestos (1978), Shid-theory (1978), Energy (1979), Retrospective (1981). Large retrospectives held in 1986 in Belgrade and Zagreb won him definitive recognition.
He died on December 18, 1987, after a long illness. In 1988 the Gallery of Expanded Media organized a round table on Bašičević's work and many of his works/texts were published for the first time (Quorum no. 1/1989).

Darko Šimičić

essay about author


1972. Fenomen Picasso – komentari Mangelos, Youth Tribune Art Salon, Novi Sad
1976. Mangelos, Prozor u umjetnost Gallery, Zagreb
1978. Manifesti, Tošo Dabac Atelier, Zagreb
1978. Mangelos no. 9, Shid-theory, Podroom Gallery, Zagreb
1979. Mangelos no. 9 — Energija, Dubrava Gallery, Zagreb
1981. Mangelos no. 1-9 – Retrospektiva, Extended Media Gallery, Zagreb
1983. Mangelos, Science Bookstore shopfront, Zagreb
1985. Otac i sin (Ilija Bosilj i Mangelos), vestibule of Diocletian's Palace, Split
1986. Mangelos, Sebastian Gallery, Belgrade
1986. Mangelos, House of JNA Exhibition Salon, Zagreb
1986. Mangelos, "August Šenoa" bookshop storefront, Zagreb
1986. Ready-mades, "August Šenoa" bookshop storefront, Zagreb
1987. In memoriam, "August Šenoa" bookshop storefront, Zagreb
1988. Mangelos – slike, Extended Media Gallery, Zagreb
1988. Round table on Dimitrije Bašičević Mangelos in the Extended Media Gallery, Zagreb
1989. Mangelos, Sesame Gallery, Dubrovnik
1989. a & h uthopie, Antuna Maračić's performance-lecture
1989. Mangelos, tower of Diocletian's Palace, Split
1989. Mangelos, M. Ercegović's apartment, Dubrovnik
1989. Mangelos, Red Gallery, Sarajevo
1990. Mangelos, Museum of Contemporary Art, Zagreb
1991. Mangelos, City Gallery Ljubljana, Ljubljana
1993. Mangelos Books, Opus Operandi Gallery, Gent
1995. Mangelos, Ilijanum Museum, Šid
1997. abc, Galerie Rainer Borgemeister, Berlin
1997. Flow, MU, Eindhoven
1997. New Work, Rena Bransten Gallery, San Francisco
1998. Dimitrije Bašičević Mangelos, Anthony d'Offray Gallery, London; A/D Gallery, New York
1999. Teze i manifesti, Small Gallery (Museum of Modern Art), Ljubljana
2001. Les paysages des mots, Galerija The Drawing Room, Berlin
2003. – 2004. Mangelos nos. 1 to 9 ½, Museu de Arte Contemporânea de Serralves, Porto; Neue Galerie am Landesmuseum Joanneum, Graz; Fundacio Antoni Tapies, Barcelona; Kunsthalle Fridericianum, Kassel
2005. Mangelos: Les lettres et les mots, Peter Freeman, Inc., New York
2012. Mangelos: Pythagoras, Galerija Peter Freeman, Inc., New York
2013. Miroirs noirs, galerie frank elbaz, Paris
2014. Mangelos Documenta, Galerry Aanant & Zoo, Berlin
2014. Ilija/Mangelos: Father & Son, Inside & Out, Galerie St. Etienne, New York
2016. Mangelos: a retrospective of exhibitions, 1972-1981, Galerija Peter Freeman, Inc., New York
2017. Julije Knifer, Mangelos. Investigating the Limits of Painting, galerie frank elbaz, Dallas
2017. Mangelos: Manifestos, Theses, Projects and Notes, Galerie Martin Janda, Vienna
2018. Ilija – Mangelos Phenomenon, Goethe-Institut, Belgrade
2018. Mangelos Vol 1, Museum of Contemporary Art, Zagreb
2019. Mangelos: Manifesti, teze, projekti i bilješke, Nova Gallery, Zagreb


1968. Permanentna umetnost, 212 Gallery, Belgrade
1969. Typoezija, Students' Centre Gallery, Zagreb
1969. Vizuelna poezija, 212 Gallery, Belgrade
1971. Vizualna poezija, Youth Tribune, Novi Sad
1971. Vizuelna poezija, 212 Gallery, Belgrade
1972. Vizualna i konkretna poezija, House of Youth, Novi Sad
1976. Konfrontacije, Gallery of Contemporary Art, Zagreb
1977. Gorgona, Gallery of Contemporary Art, Zagreb; Students' Cultural Centre Gallery, Belgrade; Städtisches Museum Abteiberg, Mönchengladbach
1981. Antimuzej V. D. Trokuta, Vjesnik's Antiques Shop, Zagreb
1981. S onu stranu estetike, Students' Centre Gallery, Zagreb
1982. Inovacije u hrvatskoj umjetnosti, Gallery of Contemporary Art, Zagreb; Museum of Contemporary Art, Belgrade
1982. Verbo-voko-vizuelno u Jugoslaviji, 1950—1980, Museum of Contemporary Art, Belgrade
1986. Geometrije, Karas Gallery, Zagreb
1987. Jugoslovenska documenta 87, Skenderija Olypmic Centre, Collegium Artisticum, Sarajevo
1989. Gorgona (...Jevsovar, Knifer...), FRAC Bourgogne, Dijon
1989. Extended Media Gallery od 1981 — 1989., Karas Gallery, Zagreb
1993. The Horse who Sings — Radical Art from Croatia, Museum of Contemporary Art, Sydney
1993. Le milieu du monde, Sète, Francuska
1994. Zwischen Zeit Raum, Galerie Schüppenhauer, Cologne
1996. Galerie d’art graphique: Dessins acquisitions 1992 –1996, Centre Georges Pompidou, Paris
1997. Kartografi, Art Pavilion, Zagreb
1997. Gorgona, Gorgonesco, Gorgonico, Venice Biennale, Ex Macello, Dolo
1999. — 2000. Aspekte/Positionen — 50 Jahre Kunst aus Mitteleuropa 1949-1999, Museum Moderner Kunst Stiftung Ludwig, Vienna; Ludwig Múzeum — Kortárs Művészeti Múzeum, Budapest
2000. 2000+ ArtEast Collection, Museum of Modern Art, Ljubljana
2000. Das fünfte Element — Geld oder Kunst, Kunsthalle Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf
2000. Beyond Preconceptions: The Sixties Experiment, Národní galerie v Praze - Veletržní palác, Prague
2001. PM 20 [1981 — 2001], Home of HDLU, Zagreb
2002. Monokromi, Art Pavilion, Zagreb
2002. In Search of Balkania, Neue Galerie am  Landesmuseum Joanneum, Graz
2002. The Misfits, Kunstamt Kreutzberg Bethanien, Berlin; Museum of Contemporary Art, Skoplje; Art Moscow, Moscow
2003. In den Schluchten des Balkans, Kunsthalle Friedericianum, Kassel
2004. Pedesete godine u hrvatskoj umjetnosti, Home of HDLU, Zagreb
2004. Čudovišno, Art Pavilion, Zagreb
2004. Open systems — Rethinking Art c.1970, Tate Modern, London
2006. Living Art on the Edge of Europe, Kröller Müller Museum, Otterlo
2006. Eye on Europe – Prints, Books and Multiples – 1960 to Now, Museum of Modern Art, New York
2006. Fluxus, Happening, Kontextkunst, Neue Galerie, Graz
2006. Big—Bang, Centre George Pompidou, Paris
2007. Avangardne tendencije u hrvatskoj umjetnosti, Klovićevi dvori Gallery, Zagreb
2007. Konceptualna umetnost — arhiv dokumenata, informacija i umetničkih dela: 1968—2007, Museum of Contemporary Art of Vojvodina, Novi Sad
2007. Gorgona iz Kolekcije Macura, Museum of Contemporary Art, Belgrade
2008. Kiedy rano otwieram oczy, widzę film. Eksperyment w  sztuce jugosławii w latach 60. i 70., Muzeum Sztuki Nowoczesnej w Warszawie, Warsaw
2010. Les Promesses du passé. Une histoire discontinue de l'art dans l'ex-Europe de l'Est, Centre Pompidou, Paris
2010. You are Kindly Invited to Attend, Aanant & Zoo, Berlin
2011. Museum of Parallel Narratives. In the Framework of L'International, Museu d'Art Contemporani de Barcelona, Barcelona
2011. I Am Still Alive: Politics and Everyday Life in Contemporary Drawing, Museum of Modern Art, New York
2011. Područje zastoja: aktivistička umjetnost iz Kolekcije Marinko Sudac, Marshall Tito's Yacht "Galeb", Rijeka
2012. Verführung Freiheit. Kunst in Europa seit 1945, Deutsches Historisches Museum, Berlin
2013. Critique and Crises. Art in Europe Since 1945, Kumu Art Museum, Tallinn
2013. Sedanjost in prisotnost: ponovitev 4  – mikropolitične situacije, Museum of Modern Art, Ljubljana
2013. Modernités plurielles (de 1905 à 1970), Centre Georges Pompidou, Paris
2014. Personal Cuts : art à Zagreb de 1950 à nos jours, Musée d'Art Contemporain de Nîmes, Nîmes
2015. How to do Art with Words, MUSAC, León, Spain
2015. Transmissions: Art in Eastern Europe and Latin America, 1960 – 1980, Museum of Modern Art, New York
2015. Knifer, Mangelos, Vaništa, Galerija Mitchell-Innes & Nash, New York
2016. Cold Front from the Balkans, Pera Museum, Istanbul
2016. Modernità Non Allineata. Arte e Archivi dell'Est Europa dalla Collezione Marinko Sudac, FM Centre for Contemporary Art, Milan
2017. Meandering, Abstractly, galerie frank elbaz, Dallas
2017. El nem kötelezett művészet – Marinko Sudac gyűjteménye, Ludwig Múzeum — Kortárs Művészeti Múzeum, Budapest
2017. Gorgona, Kunstmuseum Liechtenstein, Vaduz
2018. In Memoriam – Josip Vaništa, Šira Gallery, Zagreb
2018. Guernica, Musée national Picasso, Paris
2018. Mesa dos sonhos: Duas coleções de arte contemporânea, The Serralves Museum of Contemporary Art, Porto
2018. Hello World. Revision einer Sammlung, Hamburger Bahnhof – Museum für Gegenwart, Berlin
2019. GORGONA 1959–1968. Független művészeti törekvések Zágrábban. Retrospektív kiállítás a Marinko Sudac gyűjteményből, Kassák Múzeum, Budapest
2019. Radoslav Putar i Miljenko Horvat. Retrospektiva, Varaždin City Museum, Varaždin
2019. GORGONA. Prace z kolekcji Marinko Sudaca, Profile Foundation, Warsaw
2019. The Sensation of Space, The Warehouse, Dallas